Emergence of Sociology : Importance of Some Eco. Pol. Revolutions

  • by Dr. Surendra Singh

Enlightenment, Social and political thought paved the way for revolutionary ruptures in Traditional social relations. From the Renaissance on, western European societies acquired modern characteristics but Enlightenment ideas and the American French and industrialrevolutions ushered in some of a definitive Societies.

1. Characteristics of modern capitalist. The profound upheaval of the French revolution in particular, highlighted some of problems and issues of concern to prerevolutionary Enlightenment thinkers. These became the problems and issues of the ‘New Science” sociology, at the beginning of the 19thcentury. Thomas Jafferson’spreamble to the Declaration of Independence, issues made that all rational individuals would agree with the self evident  truths that all men are created equal and endowed with unalienable rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. It was the duly of reasonable people to resist and reject an unjust tyrannical authority. This appeal to reason and natural rights as justification for resistance to traditional religiously sanctioned authority was a profound challenge to the political statusquo especially in combination with the idea that government. was a form of contract between the ruler and the ruled. If a ruler did not fulfill the terms of the contract, then the subject had the right to reject the ruler and institute a new form of government.

The American Revolution of 1776 led by colonies against the colonial masters obviously had   considerable impact on Great Britain, but the citizenship claim against traditional authority had the most important consequences in France. Many 18thcentury French considered America the ideal society embodying the admired qualities of innocence, rugged directness and freedom (Schama 1989). As a result of the American Revolution, the term democracy,took on its moderns refer of government. by the people. In GB the term had been used in connection which ‘mob-rule’ and democrats were usually regarded as dangerous and subversive mob agitators (Williams 1963).

Democracy involved a new relationship between individuals and society or the state, which later becamea fundamental issues in the writings of many sociologists. They raised important questions as to the rights and responsibilities of free, rational and autonomous citizens_____ who were no longer subjects of the state-and how those rights and responsibilities might be guaranteed. The Considerable optimism about the revolution was voiced by William Wordsworth (1809)

But such enthusiasm was quickly abandoned in the bloody aftermath of the revolution and the beheading of the king, Louis XVI in France