France: Revolution and Collectivism
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France remerged in the 17thcentury as the most powerful nation state in Europe over the previous 200 yrs. Variousprenrepalitions independent fiefdom and dukedoms had been absorbed by the French monarchy as it Consolidated Its power.
Long before other European nations the French has centralized production authority, an effective system of national taxation and accounting, and a standing army made up largely of professionals and conscripts who served only the state and not a multitude of private employees. Unified, wealthy and the centre of style and aristocratic culture, France also was the center of learning and social. Philosophy. The middle class who was barred form palatial power and was denied the rights and privileges of the aristocracy, was however, receptive of the idea of social Change.
The debts of an extravagant monarchy led kingLouis XVI to summon the Slate general in 1789. This feudal parliament Comprised the three medieval estates, the aristocracy, the clergy and the commoners. However, the representativesof the so called 3rdestate, not only disapproved the king’s request for money but also refused to disperse when ordered and helped to initiate an insurrection in the streets of pairs. The great revolution ultimately led to execution of King Louis XVI. Throughout the classical period (789-1919), the French tended to favor forms of social collectivism rather than individualism. Collectivist theorists viewed individuals as naturally part of, dependent or, and to some extent – subservient of the social whole.
The Young Marx, who lived in exile in Pairs during the 1840’s was influenced by French Socialist theory that how emerged during the later revolutions in France, in which govt. of workers emerged as one of the optimisms. Whereas Comte’s and Durkheim’s writings reveal the influence of the radical (socialism as a Politically radical form of Collectivism) and Conservative
Variants of French Collectivism. Both Combined the conservative emphasis on an organic view of the Collective good which radical conception of progress and equality of opportunity.Both focused on some form of collectivist restructuring for France.