Important Topics of Environment and Ecology

  • by Manoj K. Jha

The topic of ‘Ecology, Bio-diversity & Climate-Change’ in Prelim coupled with the topic of ‘Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment’ in Main, creates a comprehensive structure of study.

By Manoj K. Jha

The topic of ‘Ecology, Bio-diversity & Climate-Change’ introduced in Prelim 2011 (ie. With the change of pattern) coupled with the topic of ‘Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment’ in Main (GS Paper III) creates a comprehensive structure of study. The non-conventional nature of the subject along with the fast developments taking place in the field has made it extremely difficult for a student to study it in totality. Given the situation, an attempt has been made to make the task of a student a little bit comfortable by enlisting the topics to be covered in a relatively detailed format. In this exhaustive list topic of contemporary relevance also has been included .

To study ecology and environment one can divide the whole syllabus into five categories ie.

· Fundamentals of Ecology
· Environmental problems
· Contemporary  environmental issues
· Integrated environmental management
· Global environmental governance and India’s response

Below mentioned are the suggested topics for ecology and environment section —-


1. Ecosystem: ….Structure of An Ecosystem …Function of an Ecosystem….Ecological Pyramids …..Ecological Efficiencies…Biological Magnification..etc

2. Biodiversity: …..Need for Preservation of Bio-diversity….Threats to Bio-diversity …Effects of Loss of Bio-diversity…Bio-diversity Conservation…Bio-diversity in India… Mangrove….National Bio-diversity Strategy and Action Plan

3. Natural Resources: ….Conservation of Forests …..Conservation of Soil….Conservation of Water…..Conservation of Wild Life …..Conservation of Energy Resources…and issues related to it…

4. Energy & Environment: …Fossil Fuels and Environment…Fuel Energy and Need for Sensible Use…..Renewable Energy …Bio-Mass Energy..Solar Energy for Rural India ….Gobar Energy in India….Biogas

5. Environmental Crisis: ….Forms of Environmental Crisis ….Causes of Environmental Crisis …..Environmental Conservation ….Government for the Management

6. Environmental Hazards: …Cyclonic Storms ….Floods …..Landslide …Landslide Zones….Drought  etc

7. Climatic Change:  …The Greenhouse Effect …. Consequences of Climate Change…World Response …UN-Convention on Climate Change

8. Global warming: …Greenhouse Gases….India Enters in Carbon trading…….Weakening North Atlantic Current …Upper Atmosphere thinning …..Ozone Hole Galloping Antarctica Again …Southern Hemisphere Affected More …..Sea Level Rise….environmental refugees, global initiatives..etc

9. Forest:  Forestry & Man….Social Forestry ….Agro-Forestry ….Silviculture

10. Forests & Environment:…..Indian Scenario….Need for Conservation of Forest..Scope of Forest Management…integrated forest management

11. Pollution:….Air Pollution ….Water Pollution …..Oil Pollution at sea …..Radioactive Pollution …..Role of Government in Combating Pollution..Recent developments..etc

12. Land Degradation….Desertification …..Modern Agriculture ….Soil Problem in India ….Wetlands Management…watershed development

13. Water Resources…Configuration of Water Use…..Water Quality Deterioration….Human Issues and Water Resources ….Water Management and Conservation..Water privatization and issues related..

14. Global environmental governance …important international environmental initiatives as..Earth summits, RIO, etc  …and issues related to it


1. Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting
2. Arctic Hurricanes
3. Bharat Stage -IV
4. B K Chaturvedi Committee on Ecological Clearance
5. Black Carbon
6. Carbon Credit
7. Bharti Research Station
8. Biofertilizer
9. Bioremediation
10. Carbon Footprint and Indian Industries
11. Carbon Sequestration
12. Carbon Sink
13. Carbon Tax
14. Cartagena Protocol
15. Census of Marine Life
16. Central Water Commission
17. CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamps)
18. Clean Development Mechanism
19. Coastal Zone Management
20. Comprehensive Environment Pollution Index
21. Convention On International Trade In Endangered Species Of Wild Fauna And Flora (Cites)
22. Desert Geopark
23. E-8 (Elephant Conservation)
24. Ecologically Sensitive Areas
25. Ecomark
26. Emission Trading
27. Energy Conservation Building Code
28. Energy Saving Certificates
29. Environmental Performance Index
30. Environmental Refugee
31. E.U. Emission Cap (Airlines)
32. Genetic Garden
33. Genetic Pollution
34. Geo-Engineering
36. Geographical Information System
37. Global Carbon Project
38. Global Tiger Forum
39. Green Building
40. Green India Mission
41. Green National Accounts Initiative
42. Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment
43. Haathi Mere Saathi
44. India State of Forest Report 2011
45. Integrated Coastal Zone Management
46. Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project
47. Integrated Watershed Management Programme
48. IUCN Red list
49. Kiribati Islands (Climate Change Impact)
50. Kyoto Protocol
51. Multilateral Environmental Agreements
52. Nagoya Protocol
53. National Action Plan On Climate Change
54. National Centre for Marine Bio-Diversity
55. National Clean Energy Fund
56. National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project
57. National Disaster Communication Network
58. National Disaster Management Information System
59. National Environment Appellate Authority
60. National Environment Assessment and Monitoring Authority
61. National Environment Policy
62. National Geophysical Research Institute
63. National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
64. National Green Tribunal (NGT) or Green Courts
65. National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture
66. National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
67. Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC)
68. Network Project on Organic Farming
69. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
70. Oil spill
71. Oil zapper
72. Ramasar Convention
73. Redd
74. Redd+
75. Renewable Energy Certificate (REC)
76. Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO)
77. Save (Saving Asia’s Vultures from Extinction)
78. Un Convention on Biological Diversity (Uncbd)
79. Un International Year of Forests
80. Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (Wgeep)
81. Wwf (World Wildlife Fund)
82. Yeti (Young Ecologists Talk and Interact)
83. Zero Carbon Britain
84. All about Ecologically Sensitive Area
85. Water Degradation in Urban Areas
86. E-Waste Management and Handling
87. Disposal of Untreated Sewage
88. Conservation Of Tiger, Elephant, Snow Leopard, Etc
89. Environmental Aspects Associated With Mining
90. Kasturirangan Report
91. Corporate Social Responsibility And Environment
92. Forest Clearance Issue
93. IUCN updated List
94. Pro-Poor Green Development Initiatives
95. Climate Change and International Response
96. Mining of Sand on River Beds
97. Pollution in Metros
98. Encroachment on National Parks
99. Contamination of Water
100. Commercialization of Agriculture
101. Real Estate Boom and Environment Degradation
102. Haphazard Construction In Hilly Areas And Impact
103. Integrated River Basin Management
104. Trials of Gm Food and Impact
105. Environment Clearance and Development Issue
106. Community Forest Management
107. Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Auditing
108. Polythene Bags and Pollution
109. Groundwater Depletion
110. Impact Of Tower Radiation
111. Greenex: India’s First Carbon-Efficient Index