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GS Mains Foundation 2018

Internal Security

Syllabus:

• Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
• Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
• Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

Sub Topic List:

Linkages between development and spread of extremism

  • Political Economy of Development, development and destitution, losers and gainers, state’s role to optimize the outcomes and minimize frictions including social tension
  • Limitations of trickle down and need for state intervention
  • Role of state in ensuring growth with distributive justice and equity
  • Role of state in arbitrating between conflicting interests such as between capital and labour, rural regions and urban regions, industrial sector and farming sector, economic growth and social welfare etc.
  • Development deficit and loss of trust in state, alienation, fatalism
  • Big hydropower projects, dams and irrigation projects, infrastructure projects, SEZs and displacement
  • Acquisition of land for commercial and other than farm use and issues related to compensation and rehabilitation
  • Use of forest and mineral resources, right to ownership, livelihood and issues related to sustainable development
  • Land and agrarian relations- conflicts of interest between the stake holders such as land owners, tillers, landless labour, traders and commission agendas, non-institutional sources of credit, indebtedness of farmers, farmers suicide
  • Indoctrination- role of ultra-left organizations, trade unions and labour movements, peasant groups, student wings, religious groups and inability of state to counter them

Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenge to internal security

  • Role of external State in creating Challenge to internal security– Creating inhospitable environment, perpetuating conflict torn history by pervading fractious and false images through education system and political utterances often to hide their failure on development, border disputes, conflicting interests, especially with regard to strategic territorial claims, water resources, population, religion and ethnographic issues, playing a role to contain one another in economic development and regional influence, lack of economic and political engagement, Role of state agencies including intelligence agencies in providing political support, finance, training, and logistics including arms and ammunitions to secessionist groups, providing safe havens and asylum to political opponents and secessionist elements,, asymmetric low intensity wars through the disgruntled or indoctrinated elements.
  • Role of non-state actors in creating challenge to internal security- Religious fundamentalist and terrorist elements, political secessionist groups, Naxalist and ultra left groups, far right nationalists and majority-hegemony seekers, Regional and linguistic chauvinists, underworld including smugglers, drug and narcotic cartels, human traffickers, hawala and money laundering networks
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks – Rapid speed and vast reach for Propaganda and Indoctrination, Misinformation and rumor mongering, cadre recruitment etc.
  • Role of media and social networkingsites in internal security challenges(a) Responsible, neutral and free media– may help in presenting a true picture and help reduce frictions by creating an amiable environment, mobilizing public opinion for peaceful settlement of disputes, giving timely information and issuing timely warnings to government agencies and public groups etc., (b) Biased and Irresponsible and politically motivated media– May endeavour to fan the differences, widen the chasms and flare up disputes and tensions, destroy amiable environment, peddle untruth, rumors and give undue coverage to anti-social elements. (c) Social Media- Uses and Misuses need for a regulator.
  • Basics of Cyber Security- Vulnerabilities of Information technology and internet, Meaning and scope of Cyber Security, Need and importance of cyber security, Different kinds of cyber security vulnerabilities- Backdoors, Denial–of–service attacks, Direct access attacks, Eves-dropping, Exploits, Indirect attacks, Social Engineering and human error, Cyber wars including propaganda, , site hacking and injecting viruses, identity and password theft, stealing classified information and patents; Vulnerabilities of internet based systems in banking, finance, transport and communication systems etc.; Measures for Cyber security- Technology, laws and regulations, education, training and awareness;  Financial cost of security breaching, Different measures for cyber security- Security by Design, Security by Architecture, Hardware protection mechanisms, secure operating systems, secure coding, capabilities and access control lists, Hacking back, Legal framework and cyber laws, global issues in cyber security, bitcoins-Meaning, features, threats and opportunities.
  • Money Laundering and its prevention- Meaning of Money Laundering, objectives of Money Laundering, Agents of Money Laundering, Money laundering through legitimate and illegitimate channels, Methods of Money Laundering- placement, layering and integration stages, Role of Hawala, National agencies looking over money laundering- Department of revenue, Enforcement Directorate, economic crime wing of police, International agreements and institutions including FATF, double tax avoidance treaty, information sharing agreements, Money Laundering act etc.

Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism

  • Challenges of Cross Border Terrorism for India
  • Reasons for cross border terrorism
  • India’s counter terrorism setup
  • Options for management
  • Security challenges in border areas
  • India’s border management
  • Securing coastal security
  • Conclusion and recommendations
  • Summary of military report on India’s border management

Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

  • Structure
  • Function
  • Indian police in 21st century
  • Challenges
  • The kind of police we want
  • Police reforms in India
  • Way forward: the future of police reform
  • Model Police Act, 2006
  • Various security forces, agencies and their mandate

Strategy

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