Science and Technology


• Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

• Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

Sub Topic List:

  • Institutional structure for science development
    a) Dept of S & T
    b) SEED
    c) NCSTC
    d) NSTEDB
    e) CSIR
    f) SERC
    g) Technology dev Board
    h) National Accreditation Board

• S&T policy aftr independence – 2003, 2013

• Nanotechnology
a) Scientific principle
b) Applications
I. In medicine
II.In industry
III. In space
IV. In consumer goods
V. In transport
VI. In electronics
VII. In environment
VIII. In textile
c) Nano Mission of India
d) Different capacity building projects of India
e) Examples of some research outputs
f) Nano knowledge city
g) Initiatives by different companies
h) Drawbacks
i) International cooperation

• IT
a) Computers and their Generations
b) Supercomputers
c) Networking and types
d) Internet
e) Basic terms used in internet as www; http; HTML; URL; IP address etc
f) IPV6
g) IP Telephony
h) Social networking sites and its impact
i) Computer crimes
j) Cyber laws
k) Types of computer viruses
l) Recent controversy on online content
m) Digital signature
n) UIDAI project: use of IT in fingerprinting, iris scanning etc
o) ATM
p) AI
q) Digital Convergence
r) BPO: advent of it in India
s) E-governance: different initiatives by government
t) National Policy on IT
u) Cloud computing
v) Internet banking
w) E-learning
x) National Knowledge Network
z) NIC

• Space
a) Brief history of space technology in India
b) How a satellite works
c) Different parts of satellites in brief
e) Different Centres
f) Launch vehicle types
g) Propulsion systems
h) Cryogenic rockets
i) Reusable technology
j) Different satellite orbits as GTO, LEO,MEO, GEO
k) International space station
l) Space suit
m) New ISS launched by China
o) Telemedicine
p) INSAT and its applications
q) Examples of some latest INSAT satellites
r) Remote Sensing Satellites and its applications
s) Examples of some latest Remote sensing Satellites
t) New launches
u) Future programmes of India
v) Tele education
w) DTH
x) International collaborations
y) Space as a source of mass social dev
z) Environmental effects of satellites
1) International space programmes
2) Latest programmes analysis

• Electronics
a) Brief introduction of Semiconductors
b) How semiconductor works
c) What are photovoltaic devices
d) LED and OLED
e) Plasma
h) Triple play
i) Lasers
j) 3-D and Animation
k) Superconductors
l) Government initiatives for dev of electronic industry
m) R & D in Electronics
n) Electronics Policy 2011
o) Latest developments
p) Robotics
q) Laser
r) Superconductivity

• Defence
a) Basic concepts as what is missile and how it works?
b) Stealth technology with intro of RADAR
c) Difference between ballistic and cruise missile
d) What is Mach speed
e) Division of types of missiles in relation with India missile programme
f) Anti ballistic missiles and how it works
h) Different technological dev in weapons and aircrafts for Air force
i) Brief intro of different naval ships with their use
j) Institutional structure for R & D in defence
k) Role of DRDO for overall dev of defence system other than weapons as frozen foods, clothes etc
l) Chemical and biological weapons
m) Dirty bombs and convention to ban it
n) New technological dev to trace bombs
o) What is IED
p) Defense Technology Road Map of India

• Energy
a) Overview of fossil fuels as coal, crude oil
b) New technologies to decrease its pollution content
c) Thermal power plants, how it works and disadvantages
d) Hydroelectric power plants, working and drawbacks
e) Carbon sequestration
f) Carbon footprint concept
g) New policies of government to make fossil energy resources more greener
h) Renewable energy resources and its advantages over non renewable
i) Solar energy
j) Wind energy
k) Fuel cells
l) Geothermal energy
m) Tidal and wave energy
n) Biofuel, biogas, etc
o) Hydrogen fuel and its uses
p) Some new inventions

• Biotechnology
a) What are genes?
b) What is biotechnology?
c) Its branches
d) Bio fingerprinting
e) Bio sensors
f) Genetic engineering
g) Recombinant technology
h) Gene mutation
i) Human genome project
j) Gene sequence of arhar, neemetc
k) Bio piracy
l) Bio-grid
m) Bt cotton
n) BtBrinjal and controversy
o) Cloning
p) Stem cells
q) Applications in agriculture, industry, food, health etc.
r) Institutional structure for dev of biotechnology in India
s) Initiatives by government for the dev of biotechnology
t) Mission mode programmes
u) Bioinformatics
v) International collaborations
w) Latest achievements
x) Biotechnology and society
y) Biotechnology and environment

• Nuclear technology
a) Basic concepts as:
i. What is radioactivity?
ii. Applications of radioactivity
iii. Nuclear fission
iv. Nuclear fusion
v. What is coolant, modulator, fuel used etc
vi. How nuclear power generates
vii. Different types of nuclear reactors as fast breeder, boiling water reactor etc
viii. Civilian and military use of nuclear technology
b) Overview of different countries involved in nuclear technology with intro of ITER.
c) Disadvantages with focus on nuclear accidents and long term effect of radiation on masses
d) Institutional structure for dev of nuclear technology in India
e) India nuclear policy
f) Nuclear programme
g) Recent controversy of establishing nuclear reactors
h) Safety parameters issued by government
i) Uranium mines in India
j) Technologies and applications for societal dev in India

• Telecommunication
a) Basic concepts as:
i. What is analog and digital?
ii. What are the different multiplexing techniques?
iii. Optical fibre system
iv. Networking devices as Modem, ISDN, PSTN, etc.
v. What is spectrum?
vi. How mobile phone works?
b) GSM and CDMA
c) Different Generations of Mobile
d) Types of mobile batteries
e) Wi-Fi; Wimax; Bluetooth; WiBro; WAP; GPRS
f) What are Broadband and its uses?
g) Satellite Phone
h) iPhone and iPad
i) GPS navigation
j) Radiation emission guidelines set for Mobile Handsets, Mobile Base Stations
k) Indian Telecom Industry with brief history; National Telecom Policy 1994, 1999, 2011
m) Mobile Number Portability
n) TCCCPR Bill 2010
o) What is USOF?
p) Spectrum Licencing
q) Telecomm applications for the socio-economic dev of the masses

Science and Technology applications and effects in everyday life
Daily applications of science and its penetration in life

• Science and inclusive growth
• Science and economic development
• Science and governance
• Innovation: Need of the hour
• Achievements of Indians in science & technology:
Ancient, medieval and modern era scientists


  • GS Mains Syllabus Subtopic Listing
  • PRELIMS (25)
  • MAINS (23)
  • IAS Topper's Interview (43)
  • Miscellaneous (10)
  • Write Your Review